Course description:  On one hand, standardization is one of the defining aspects of modern life, its presence is so pervasive that it is usually taken for granted. However cumbersome, onerous, or simply puzzling certain standards may be, their fundamental purpose in streamlining procedures, regulating behaviors, and predicting results is rarely questioned. Indeed, the invisibility of infrastructure and the imperative of standardizing processes signify their absolute necessity. (Susan Leigh Star et. Al., Standards and their stories, 2009)  On the other hand, there is a big movement developing concepts of free and/or open software (F/OSS). Here we are also looking at the ways hackers sustain their productive freedom and the ideals of free speech and transparency. How are this processes connected to invisible standardizing processes?(Gabrielle Coleman, Coding Freedom,2009)  And art and design are imbued by the wish to develop something new! Instrumental for this endeavor is a believe in the possibility of free speculation. But what does this mean? (Anthony Dune, Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything, 2014)  Reading analytical essays, treatises and discussions is a precondition to find connections and paradoxes existing between these three aspects: standardization-freedom{of coding}-speculation. Specific examples from the fields of art and design will accompany the literature. The seminar will task participants to express themselves and conduct experiments in different formats of writing.
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